Internship is an integral part of MBA program, because it gives us the practical knowledge of what we have learnt during our study period. This report is written to fulfill the requirement of MBA degree.
Trading keeps much importance in human life. This practice started when the human beings thought to live together in the formal way. Small groups of people came together and small colonies were established. This change in living style started exchange of the things. So when the first thing was exchanged the trade was come into being.
Now a day the business environment keeps on changing everywhere. New dimensions of business are coming before us. These dramatic and dynamic changes in business world require the specialties about the all aspects of business of today. Because of these requirements, business knowledge become important and business education becomes the need of time. Only he person with latest knowledge can survive in this vast field.
But practical knowledge is also necessary along with the theoretical knowledge. This made the internship an integral part of MBA. One can see how the theories and knowledge are being practically implemented. This report is about Crescent Textile Mills Ltd. I did my internship here for 6 weeks and this report carries the information about history, organizational structure, marketing strategies and SWOT analysis of Crescent Textile Mills Ltd.
Crescent textile mills limited a leading organization in textile sector was assigned to me for internship. This report is about my experience and knowledge, which I have gained during my internship program. In this report I have made a humble attempt to express most efficiently and effectively what I experienced and observe at CTM. I think that this report will be really helpful for those who want to know about CTM.
Countless thanks to almighty Allah, the lord of the whole universe and the greatest force behind my success in my life. I also pay my heartily to Hazrat Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) whose whole life is marvel and model of any person belonging to any walk of life.
I feel great pleasure and honor to express my Heartiest gratitude and deep sense of obligation to my supervisor professor ----------------------- for his keen interest skillful guidance, enlightened views, unfailing patience, mastery advice, inspire attitude and valuable suggestions for the accomplishment of present study. In fact it was not possible to bring this work to fruitful conclusion with out his day and night persuasive and sincere efforts.
I pay my gratitude to all other respected teachers at institute of management sciences,
I am highly indebted to “-------------------“ who provide me useful information during the internship program.
I am grateful to those who have directly and indirectly contributed towards the preparation of this assignment.
Finally I would like to thanks to my adoring parents, for their day and night prayers, sacrifices, encouragement, moral and financial support through out the course of study.
Crescent Textile Mills is a
Flagship of large crescent group, CTM’s main area of business is in textile. As a composite unit having ISO-9002 certification on 1997, which is engaged in spinning, weaving, processing and is one of the largest exporters of cotton yarn in
Now Crescent Textile Mills has seven independent complete units of spinning, 184 weaving sulzer looms, one separate unit of towel & one complete unit of garments. Crescent Textile Mills has one of the largest textile-processing units with a capacity of 2.5 million meters fabric monthly.
The electricity consumed by Crescent Textile Mills is produced by its own power station located within the boundary of Crescent Textile Mills. All spinning, weaving, towel, processing and garment units are located within the same boundary.
The total no of employees are more than 5000 from which 2000 employees are staff and on permanent basis. Factory runs complete 24 hrs a day and employees work in three-day and night shifts of 8 hours.
Crescent Textile Mills was established in 1951 as a private limited company. Crescent Textile Mills was converted into a public limited company in 1958. The crescent group effectively controls the company. In the context of
Crescent Textile Mills is playing a vital role in the development of
The Crescent Textile Mills Ltd was incorporated and set up in FSD as a public limited company. It is one of the fist few textile mills to be established in the country, and also the first unit of the crescent group. The Crescent Textile Mills Ltd is situated on
With the passage of time, the company grew in stature and its sponsors became to be known as crescent family. The period up to mid 60’s was also the period of growth of the family businesses as the sponsors/ crescent family diversified their investments to more textile companies, sugar mills, jute mills, larger trading houses, shipping etc. and so the crescent family came to be known as the crescent group.
As year’s road on, the Crescent Textile Mills Ltd continued to expand its exports and earned the reputation of being the leading exporter of yarn, fabric and various products in the home textile sector. The company’s prosperity broad about a better quality of life for those who worked for it. The company provides accommodation for its employees, staff and executives as well as plays grounds, parks shops, community centers, and industrial homes for their welfare. It insures that its work force is happy and their families are well cared of.
In its desired to forge ahead in the competitive field of the home textile sector, the company has made investments for updating and modernizing its machinery and equipment and insures training of its employees by hiring and contracting its experts in textile for its workers for its staff.
As well as sending executives to recognized institutes in the country and abroad for specialized training in management, accounting, IT and technical training. It was the first textile company to introduce quality circles even at the worker’s level and by mid 80’s had graduated to total quality management and Deming’s 14 points. It was also the first composite company in
The main architect of the sales in the marketing of the Crescent Textile Mills Ltd has been its Chief Executive, Mr. Muhammad Anwer, who has led the company for the front. Besides been awarded every year its highest sales in yarn and cloth, the C.E has also been recognized as “ the business man of the year” twice in the year 1993,1994 and 1994,1995 by the Pakistan federation of Chamber of Commerce and industry. The company has also been awarded the president of
For the year ending in September 2002, the company had generated export sales revenue of $60.94 million, of which clothe (beached , dyed or printed) accounted for nearly US $ 33.95 million; made ups in the textile sector accounted for US $ 14.16 million; yarn sales accounted for :Us $ 10.31 million and towel sales accounted for US $ 2.52 million.
The Crescent Textile Mills Ltd has been introduced as a public limited company under the company’s ordinance on
Crescent family and group companies 51.57%
Public and foreign institution 48.43 %
List of board of directors is shown below:
Mr. Muhammad Anwer (Chairman& Chief Executive)
Mr. Anjum M. Sleem
Mr. Hamayun Mazher
Mr. Khalid Bashir
Mr. Muhammad Arshad
Mr. Nasir Shafi
The company has signed a joint venture agreement with Green Wood mills Inc. USA. To set up a composite Denim garment-manufacturing unit at Bahuman, Dist. Hafizabad under the name and style of crescent green wood limited.
THE CRESCENT GROUP
The Crescent Textile Mills is a part of Crescent group. Which has established about 30 companies in various part of the country. The major sector of the group is an under.
· Crescent textile mills limited
· Crescent Knitwear limited
· Crescent sugar mill & distillery limited
· Shakargani mills limited
· Crescent boards limited
· Crescent investment bank limited
· Shams textile mills limited
· Elite textile mills limited
· Crescent jute products limited
· Crescent leasing corporation limited
· Crescent steel and allied products limited
· Jubilee spinning and weaving mills limited
· Premier insurance Co. of Pakistan limited
· Shams food products Limited
· Crescent ventures International Limited
· Crescent Bahuman Limited
· Crescent greenwood energy Limited
· Crescent energy Limited
· Crescent powertec Limited
Private Limited Companies:
· Crescent group engineering (pvt.) Limited
· Crescent (pvt.) LimitedS
· Crescent software products (pvt.) Limited
· Riaz and company (1962) (pvt.) Limited
· Jhang electric supply corporation (pvt.) Limited
· Crescent business management (pvt.) Limited
· Cresent group (pvt.) Limited
· Crescent group services (pvt.) Limited
· Elite energy (pvt.) Limited
· Juiblee energy (pvt.) Limited
of Crescent Textile Mills Mission
Mission of Crescent Textile Mills is “To produce superior quality products to face competition in the international market and to train the staff at the world-class level to enhance the maximum shareholders value”
Following are some main objectives of Crescent Textile Mills:
Ø To arrange timely production and maintain quality goods for entire satisfaction of the customers
Ø To make Crescent Textile Mills a first choice for the foreign customers by improving its quality and services.
Ø To extend exports all over the world through better services.
Ø To establish and develop excellent working environment in the departments.
Ø Incline a sense of civic responsibility in the staff members
Ø To achieve company’s objectives
Ø Implementation of ISO-9002 standards
Ø To provide the employees a friendly atmosphere to increase their commitment and loyalty towards their organization.
Managerial Strategy Of C T M
As it’s major competitors are in the country as well as in the foreign markets, while concerning with the countrywide competitors, there are major competitors like Nishat Textile Mills Limited, Kohinoor, Gul Ahmed, M.Farooq, Chenabtextile mills limited, A.M textile mills limited along with major competitors in European market.
There is strictly needed a strategic focus to face the present intense competitive situation. The market for textile products is becoming more competitive every year. The customers are emphasizing on quality over all other thing and can easily search the most cost-effective supplier anywhere in the world. Keeping this in mind, Crescent Textile Mill’s focus has been on meeting its customer’s demands and requirements, improving its competitiveness, increasing productivity, and enhancing its existing quality control systems. So it has emphasized on the implementation of the developed strategies.
Every element of cost and quality is continually scrutinized and measured according to worldwide standards. Each unit is independently analyzed as a cost center to make cuts wherever and wherever possible. The Quality Assurance department has been further strengthened with the addition of trained staff and state-of- the –art equipment.
Marketing strategy of C T M
Although it may be the duty of the government to ensure availability of cotton at a reasonable price, it is the exclusive responsibility of Crescent Textile Mills to implement the total quality management concept. If units are able to minimize wastage, optimize cost of production, improve quality standards, ensure product diversification and learn to market the finished products, no country can compete with
Taiwan, Hong Kong, Korea, Japan, Bangladesh are the large manufacturers and exporters of value added textile products, but are dependent on Pakistan and other countries for their requirements of cotton, cotton yarn and fabric. Their edge is in finishing good quality fabric; producing attractively designed garments maintaining quality standards and abide by delivery commitments. These countries also follow different marketing strategies, while the Pakistani manufacturers first produce a product and then try to locate a customer; other countries produce what the importers demand.
Not only this, buyers are often willing to pay a premium for odd specifications, short delivery time or immediate commencement of shipments of small lots, extra care in meeting specification and better quality standards, using better quality package which may not cost as much as the premium offered.
Lately, the manufacturers of yarn having pragmatic thinking and realizing the tough completion have started producing dyed cones. They have not only tabbed a new market segment but also get better return. Isn’t it not innovative marketing?
Crescent Textile Mills have to realize the harsh reality that the days of cheap domestic cotton are over, the import of textile products is being gradually open and quota regime will be phased out gradually. They know their capabilities as well as shortcomings, products they can produce and the products the foreign buyers demand, we have to plan today how would they market their products is the days to come.
Supply and trade information
Raw cotton is purchased directly from ginning factories or import on cash payment basis, the company carries around 6 month’s supply of raw cotton at time. The buffer stock for raw cotton is 25-30 days during lean months. Purchasing usually starts at the beginning of the season and the company emphasis on acquisition of the best possible quality of cotton each year. Cotton purchasing for on season lasts for about 4-5 months. But during last 2 years purchase process continued throughout the year.
Spare parts and dyes, chemical etc are imported. Dyes and packing materials are purchased locally. The credit period for local purchases is 45 days and 15 days on dyes and packing material respectively. Polyester fiber is purchased from local manufacturer of 120-150 days basis, from ICI Pakistan Limited.
Distribution and selecting terms
The company exports are the major portion of both its yarn as well as cloth production. In the local market yarn is sold directly to brokers who in turn sell it to other mills for further processing. Grey fabric is sold on cash basis. Local sales account for 25% of total turnover and are made on cash/credit basis.
Managing marketing information
Marketing consist of people, equipment and procedures to get, sort, analyze, evaluate and distribute needed timely and accurate information.
Internal record systems
The basic information system used by marketing managers is the internal record system. It includes order to payment cycle, sales reporting system prices, inventory level etc. By receiving these informations, managers can spot important opportunities and problems.
The Crescent Textile Mills is maintaining its internal records by keeping order to payment cycle. In this system sales/marketing department keep order up-date total order quantity, balance quantity etc. excise deptt. Prepared invoice under the instruction of sales dept and goods are sent to their respective orders by special delivery.
Every firm has maintain its marketing intelligence system for the feed back from customers and agents etc that what has been happening in the market.
Marketing intelligence system is a set of procedures and sources used by managers to obtain their every day information about pertinent development on the marketing environment. The production staffs of Crescent Textile Mills visit the end users for gathering information about their product results and they visit to end-user to solve their problems.
Marketing research systems
Every manager is required to conduct marketing research, formal research on specific problems and opportunities; they conduct a market survey and product preference test and a sales forecast.
Crescent Textile Mills measures demand by adopting the following method:
ü Sales representative/agent collect data of total yarn demand.
ü Specific demands of particular count are determined and calculate the number of users of said product is calculated.
Then total demand is calculated and Crescent Textile Mills plans to get maximum share from the market demand.\
Marketing mix is the marketing task that the firms are to be required its objective in the target market. The marketing mix consists of every thing the firm can do to influence the demand for its product.
The many possibilities can be collected into four groups of variables known as the “4p’s”.
Crescent textile mill produces yarn, gray cloth and high quality fabric. Their products play an important role in the building the goodwill of the CTM.
CTM exports more than 80% of its products and remaining they sell in the local market. Main products of CTM are yarn; Gray-cloth, bed sheet and fabric etc. all the products are produce according to the requirement of customer order. CTM Ltd. Also has the distinction of being the only private sector company in the textile sector, which has entered in to the partnership with UCHINO, produce and export towels.
The main products of CTM are as follow:
Ø Yarn products
Ø Fabric products
Two types of yarn products
1- Cotton Yarn
2- Poly-cotton Yarn
1)- Cotton Yarn
· 20/1 also called 20 single
Some of them are carded and some of them combed.
2)- Poly-cotton Yarn
· 21/1 blended ratio 76:24
· 30/1 blended ratio 68:32
They can also be distinguished under two heads:
1-Gray Fabric or Cora
2-Other Fabric (processed)
1)- Gray Fabric or Cora
2)- Other Fabric (processed)
· Printed Fabric
· Dyed Fabric
· Bleached fabric or white
STITCHED ITEMS / MADE UPS
Other finished products of CTM are as follow:
· Bed Leering
· Home Furnished Products
· Bed Sheets
· Quilt Set
· Kitchen Knap Kin
· Kitchen Towel
· Kitchen Apron
· Blanket Cover
· Duvet Cover
Pricing is the amount of money that customer have to pay to obtain the product. The price policy of the company should be in such a way that it should produce a reasonable profit for the company and satisfy the customer.
There are two types of costs:
· Fixed cost
· Variable cost
1- Fixed cost
Fixed cost is the costs, which remain always same whether, are produce large quantity. Therefore, companies always try to use there full capacity of production because with increase in production the fixed cost decreases.
2- Variable cost
Per unit variable cost rises as the quantity produced decreases. Following factors are included in variable cost:
· Dyes and Chemicals
· Cost of material
Strategies In Price Fixing
There are two types of price fixing strategies
· Directly to customer
· Indirectly to customer
1- Directly to customer
If they sell their product directly to the customer then they fix price in such a way
Fixed cost + Variable cost + Desired profit
2- Indirectly to customer
If company sells their products indirectly then they fix price in such a way
Fixed cost+ Variable cost + Desired profit + Middle man’s commission
In this case the profit margin depends upon the quality and condition of the market. If the market is new then the price will be new to attract the customers and compete the existing competitors.
1-Pricing Procedure For The Local or National Market
CTM sells more then 80% of its products in the foreign market. They sell only extra quality left from the foreign order or defected product in the local market.
They call the tenders when they want to sell the product in the local market. They sell to that person whose tender price will be high. Sometimes CTM sells on its products at cut-price. Because, when some extra quantity is from the foreign order they sell at cut price because, they have already charged their cost from the foreign customer.
2-Pricing Procedure For The International Market
Pricing procedure of CTM for export is different from the local procedure. They keep in mind certain factors before changing the price in foreign market. When any customer wants to purchase the products, after negotiation they fix the price. Because, there are certain other factors are also included with fixed cost. The important factors are quality of.
Pricing procedure for export
Crescent Textile Mills has following procedure for exports
Customer inquiries are received from telex, fax and letter. They are directly sent for approval to CE and after approval sent to concerned department.
Costing sheets are prepared for CE is approval. In the absence of CE, department in charge approves price. If both are not available then section in charge is allowed to quote the price.
CE gives the approval or may give other price to be offered.
Contract review & check sheet
Section in charge takes following steps before issuing a contract:
v Prepare contract review check sheet
v The requirements are adequately defined and involvement’s of production areas.
v In house/out side have the capability to meet the order requirements.
After getting approval of costing and review of customer requirements, prices are quoted to customer for confirmation. After confirmation of prices by customer, sales contract is issued to the customer with complete detail of construction, width/size, price, quantity, delivery, payment terms etc. and the cloth order is sent to relevant department.
Purchase indent folder are received from customer pertaining to different contract booked sectional in charge check and see any discrepancy of the contract if any is found, then it is come to the knowledge of the customers for amendment.
Grey demand placed to the following department
v To export sales section for new order or revision
v To production planning and coordination (PPC) they are coordination between export and processing department.
v The stock management for updating stock position
v Inspection Grey cloth for issuance of Grey to processing
Strike off preparation & approval
Customer sends their designs either as on art paper; as paper sketch or fabric cutting. From these cuttings the strike off is made.
Once customer is satisfied with strike off, the order quantity is assorted with design.
Letter of credit
L/C is established and after receipt of L/C these are checked with regard of ordered goods by the sectional in charge and discrepancies in L/C are noted and the customer is informed for amendment.
Dispatch o f goods
Dispatch able goods detail along with samples received from folding department. Each section verifies quantity of goods to be dispatched, they intimate to S &D section to dispatch goods.
Shipment & dispatch is responsible for all documentation and shipment of goods by air and sea.
ISO department prepared management information system report.
After receiving the goods if customer found any defect, he complaints the same to the concerned department in charge. Sometimes sent the defective sample for review.
Place / Distribution
CTM exports more then 80% of its products. They are using two types of channels of distribution in export their products.
CTM Middle man (agent) Customers
As most of the products of CTM are exported, so they use the different modes of transportation to transfer the product from CTM to the customer country.
Mostly CTM exports its products through ships. There are other modes of transport also being use:
· Trucking Companies
· Airlines Companies
· Shipping Companies
CTM exports its products to all over the world but the major countries are as follow:
The CTM has not any promotion point its products. Because the demand of their products in the world is very high. We can easily judge them from their work. Our export figure is varying high as compare to any individual company.
Sources Of Communication
CTM uses following sources of communication
Ø Textile exhibition
Ø Personal visit to the customer
Ø Customer visit to the CTM
Ø Fax, Telephone, Mail, e-mail etc\
Quality policy of the company is as under
It is the policy of CTM to provide products and services that consistently meet the expectations of our customers. Encourage total employee involvement in the never-ending effort to improve the quality of our products and services.
All employees are responsible for the quality of their own work. All have the authority to initiate action to prevent the occurrence of product nonconformity.
Managers at all levels in the organization are responsible for quality improvement activities within respective areas.
Top management will provide leadership and direction of achieving quality improvement by interpreting policy, recommending strategies, organizing resources, and assisting managers in the development and implementations plans.
The quality objectives of CTM are as follow:
Ø To maintain the implemented ISO 9002 quality management system
Ø To have a strong quality check at all stages of production thus paying a way to have a better overall quality of the product and reducing overall rejection.
Ø To achieve the sales target.
Ø To improve the delivery system and to eventually achieve 100% on time delivery.
Marketing department of CTM for the execution of orders as well as marketing of the products in foreign countries. The main objective of the department is to generate the export business with quality products and better services as well as to provide efficient after sales services.
Division Of Marketing Department
Marketing department of CTM has two divisions as following
Now a day, export sale &local sale departments are under logistics but work coordination of export marketing.
CTM has major business of exports, round about 80% of total sales are from exports. As export market of CTM is divided geographically into four segments, so to deal each sagment a separate group op person is allocated who are responsible for all the orders of that specific territory / sagment.
Ø Export U.S.A & Canada (EUC)
Ø Export Yarn &Towel (yet)
Ø Export Europe & Cyprus (EEC)
The process of flow of work in these sections of export departments is same, so I have explained generally the process and functions of export department.
The export department is situated within the finance department. There are a lot of workers, which perform different functions.
Following are objectives of export department:
q To survive in the world market
q To earn foreign exchange for the development of the country.
q Increase export for the growth of the company and the country.
q To increase exports for the sake to obtain incentives and privileges of excise and taxation
q Increase exports for obtaining the optimum reputation in the foreign markets
q To get the self-reliance and prosperity level of the company.
Functions of export department
Following are the main functions of export department
Ø Getting orders from aboard
Ø Making contracts
Ø Order completion one per sample
Ø Delivery of goods
Work in export is divided into four sections geographically for proper distribution and handling of work. Following is the brief process for all sections of export departments.
Finding Of Customers
General manager marketing and manager marketing of CTM makes contact with the potential buyers through e-mail, telephone, faxes to get orders.
Similarly marketing manager along with the Chief Executive attend different international trades fairs and present their products to get the buyer attention and order.
Marketing department of CTM takes following steps to make a contract with the buyer:
Customer’s inquiries are received via telex, letters, e-mails or during meeting with the customers. Inquiry documents are directly sent to CEO for review and comments; if any absence of CEO, the inquiry documents are send to the GMM for review. After CEO review, these are sent to the department incharge who after reviewing distributes these documents to the relevant staff looking concerned marker segments.
2)- Feasibility and Availability Of Goods
Concerned sectional incharg reviews the customer’s requirements completely before quoting price to customers and ensure that:
Ø The requirements are adequately defined
Ø Mill has capability to meet the customers desire or requirements.
Ø Conformation of raw material in house / from outside.
3)- Costing The Approvals
After conformation inside / outside, sectional incharge prepare costing sheet of department incharge review and approval of CEO / GMM.
CEO / GMM gives acceptable price or may suggest new price on costing sheet. In absence of CEO / GMM gives acceptance. if both are not available then the department incharge is authorized too.
4)- Quote Price Offer To The Customer
After getting the approval of costing and review of customer requirements, price is quoted to the customer for conformation.
5)- Customer Approval
Customer accepts offer or may reject, if reject then the costing sheet again repaired and the approval procedure repeated.
6)- Contract Review And Issue
After reviewing the confirmation or purchase order, concern staff issues contract after complete review and note it in export order register.
7)- Amendment To Contract
Once the contract is established for quality, quantity, price and delivery. Any request from the customer for change in assortment of design or increase / decrease in quantity resets, i/c terms, price and delivery.
Customer may ask for any of the following changes.
Ø L/c terms
Ø Quality increase / decrease
Ø Assortment of design
Ø Color ways
Ø Shipment schedule
8)- Review Activity
After receiving the amendments by customers, possibility of amendments is reviewed of it is not possible then regret with the customer. Other wise impact of changes in price, delivery communicated to the customer and its copy is retained in the file for future references. The amendments copy with regards to quality assortments, shipping or packing instructions and shipment schedule is send to the department for implementation and follows ups.
9)- Checking Artwork
After finalizing the contract and making entry in export order register, now concerns A.M receives art work for the customer for processing the clothes per customer’s desire.
Artwork contains no of colors and designed used for the final cloth and also the packing, labeling and stitching instructions as well as telling about the sample size.
10)- Making Strike Off
When A.M receives artwork then he gives instructions to the concerned production staff to prepare strike off (sample) as per artwork send by customer.
After completion of strike off, these are checked by concerned A.M and are delivered to the customer after the final approval, so the production on large scale can be started.
If the customer approves the sample the export staff order of large production. Other wise they only receive the cost incurred on the preparation of the strike off.
Instructions To All Concerned Areas
Now the concerned A.M of export department send instruction to all the concerned areas through proper documents, e-mails and all the available sources for the completion and delivery of orders.
These functional areas are following:
Ø PPC (planning, production and control)
Ø ES (export sales)
Ø Production department (spinning, weaving, processing, garments and folding)
Ø S&D (shipment and documentation)
Ø EF (export finance)
Planning, Production & Control
Ø Stock update
Ø Arrangement of fabric and yarn
Ø Follow-ups for order completion
Checking and update the stock
When export department gives instructions for large productions for all functional areas including PPC.
Now the duty of PPC is to check the surplus stock available in godowns. If the gray cloth or yarn required for the completion of order is present, then PPC gives instructions and supply material to the concerned department to complete the period with in specified period and after providing material stock is updated in the daily stock reports.
Instructions to grey procurement department
If the yarn or grey cloth is not available in the godowns then PPC has the duty to inform export sales department to arrange grey cloth for the completion of order within specified period through e-mail and proper documentation. One copy of that is kept for the future references.
Maintaing record of machines
PPC also maintain report that shows daily record or orders, which are being processed on all available machines in spinning, weaving, garments department and also records of machines which are busy and which needs orders.
Follows-up and order completion
The PPC department is responsible to get orders completed from the concerned production department with in specified time, so they make continuous follow- ups in the production department to get order accomplished and after ward they inform the export department about the completion of orders.
EXPORT SALES DEPARTMENT
Arrangement of grey cloth and yarn for the export orders.
When the grey procurement department receives demand from PPC to purchase grey cloth or yarn, now it is their responsibility to arrange required quality and construction of cloth. So they adopt three ways:
Ø Purchase of grey cloth from the local manufactures
Ø Providing own yarn and manufacturing grey from outsider with that yarn.
Ø Using CTM own grey and yarn.
Entry in register and computer
After receiving demand grey procurement department enters the demand in to the register and computer and 1 copy of these reports send to the CEO
Contract with local parties
Now production department contract with the different mills to provide them required construction of grey cloth either with their yarn or yarn provided by CTM.
If the party agrees to take yarn from CTM and ready to make cloth with that yarn on their machines that is a power loom or auto looms then a contract is finalized after setting a suitable price with the approval of CEO.
Following are the some parties
Ø Sac textile
Ø Tanvir gull textile
Ø Manzoor textile
As the primary purpose of export sales is to manufacture the fabric from subcontractors at conversion rate by providing the yarn from mills or outside. These conversion rates and per meter yarn weight provided by the mills are quoted by the party to get business. At the offer of export sales department, the vendor and subcontractors send their quotation to export sales. The offers are made to those vendors that are already working with CTM.
After receiving of quotation the comparative report is made and sent to CEO for approval. In that report all the comparison is made subcontractors according to the rate offered by them.
CEO gives the price approval at the quotation of vendor or subcontractor. If the price quotation is rejected it is negotiated with party again and revised quotation is send to CEO for approval.
After the price approval by CEO, a contract is made including all the terms and conditions settled with party. The contract contains the name of party, the date of issuing the contract, quantity and quality of fabric, counts and number of bags of yarn. Per meter weight in lbs of yarn. Yarn conversion rate and the delivery rates of fabric.
The Yarn Issued To Party
This procedure takes place when exports sales section provides the yarn to the party / contractor for construction of cloth. The expected yarn is calculated in order to make a specific quality and quantity. After that a dispatched schedule is prepared in order to provide the yarn to the party for making the grey cloth. The delivery of yarn to the party is made according to the dispatch schedule. The finished grey cloth delivery is also set with the party according to the export requirements.
When a contract is finalized then production department is responsible to maintain record of yarn, which is supplied to the parties and grey cloth, is received against that yarn from these parties. Similarly it also maintain the record of CTM yarn and grey delivery to PPC department. For this purpose the production department updates two reports daily and submit them to CEO.
Balance to book report
Uncovered goods report
Arrival Of Finished Grey Cloth
The goods arrive from party according to the delivery schedule. The goods are sent to mills grey cloth godowns.
Inspection report to export sales section
After receiving the cloth in grey cloth godowns its inspection is made and inspection report is prepared. On the basis of inspection report the cloth status report is prepared. The report is in triplicate form and sent to export sales department. One copy is send to party and other is sent to the sales account and third is retained to the office record. The quantity of grey cloth is entered in party wise register according to the inspection report.
Rejected goods to party
The rejected goods are returned back to the party. The rejected grey cloth is bought from the party only after the approval of CEO at reduced rates as compared to normal rates. Rejected grey cloth is used in printing.
Orders booked by the customers considering for end use. The rejection can also be sold in the local market.
Bills from Party
Bills are received from the party against manufacturing or purchasing of grey cloth. The quality, quantity and the width verified in view the contract made with party by export sales department. Verification of the bills is made through the records (that records is maintained in party wise register and relevant files). After verification the bills are sent to sales account department for payment.
The payment is made after the approval of CEO in the form of cheques. The cheques are issued in favor of party against the execution of contract.
In the modern world all countries whether developed or under developed are pre-occupied with problems of selling merchandises in foreign countries. When goods are exported a number of documents are to be prepared unless the overseas trade is properly documented, the exporter cannot receive payment and the importer cannot make it.
The major documents involved in the export process or in the foreign trade are:
ü Letter of credit
ü Transportation documentation
ü Packing list
ü Certificate of origin
ü Certificate of inspection
ü Procedure list
ü Form ‘E’
ü Bill of exchange
Before going into elaboration of these documentations, one must know all about them. No person can export any goods until he is registered as an exporter with Director general of Export Promotion Bureau.
A commercial invoice is a commercial document by which the seller charges the goods to the buyer. The in formations, which this document provides to the exporter and the importer, are as follows:
§ Invoice number
§ Name and address of the buyer and the seller
§ Order/contract number, description of the goods, quality, unit price and the total amount of goods exported
§ Terms and conditions of the payments
§ Shipment details
§ Certification on the invoice
Letter of credit
The terms of letter of credit is defined as:
“The confidence of man in man”
In financial and commercial transactions this confidence is displayed by the willingness of a creditor to grant to a debtor time for payment of the debt either on the oral or written assurance of the letter that such payment will be duly effected.
The procedure and the parties involved in the letter of credit are as follows:
§ Opening bank
§ Advising and negotiating bank
§ Contract of sales
International trade involves the movement of goods from the warehouse of the exporter to the warehouse of importer. There are several modes of transporting goods and several types of documents involved in transportation process
Mode Carrier Transportation document
By sea Shipping
By air Airline Co Air way bill
By post Postal Services Post parcel receipt
By rail Railway service Railway
The transportation documents is the most important document because it is the evidence the goods are being transported and it enables the importer to obtain the delivery of the goods in due course.
Transportation document can be classified into two main types, which are as follows:
These are the documents whose title can be transferred from one person to another person. The delivery of goods can be made to the final or existing holder of the document.
These include bill of lading, railway receipts etc.
These are the documents where the title of the goods in not transferable. The delivery of the goods is only made on the names of the consignee on identification.
Parties & documentation involved in export
The firm, company or authority engaged in the business of the transportation the goods, such as steam Ship Company, airline comp etc.
The seller of the goods who wants to export his goods from his country to another country is called shipper.
The consignee is one to whom are the goods are to be exported. It may be an international bank or the buyer himself.
Certificate of origin
It is a signed statement providing evidence of the origin of the goods. These are often required by the authorities in the importing countries in order to satisfy themselves that the goods originates from a country from which imports are permitted or to support a claim for the professional import duty.
It is a document, which lists each package and shows the contents of each package including in particular shipment.
The following are the important features of packing list document:
§ It must list each package by number
§ It must show the contents of each package
§ It usually shows the weight and measurement of each package.
It is a document issued by the exporter bank on a written request signed by the authorized signatory. Through form E State Bank of Pakistan exercises absolute control over export process.
Form E will be issued the following by beneficiary bank:
§ Known customers
§ Regular exporter
§ Regular customer but exporting first time
Bills of exchange
Bills of exchange is legally defined as,” An unconditional order in writing, addressed by person to another, signed by the person giving it, requiring the person to; whom it is addressed to pay on demand or at a fix or determinable future time as uncertain in a money or to the order of a specified person, or to the bearer.
Submission to export finance
After competition of these entire documents before the mentioned date, these documents are finally checked in the S&D department. And are handed over the export finance department to submit them in the bank, which send them to the buyer bank and finally the documents are received by the buyers.
This is also a separate section with in shipping and documentation department, which is responsible to manage the purchase and sales of textile quota.
Textile quota is a restriction from certain countries like USA, and some European countries like turkey. Pakistan can not export more then that fixed limits in these quota countries.
This quota is distributed in different textile organizations including CTM through textile associations like APTMA on the basis of yearly performance.
The quota section in S&D department of CTM perform following functions.
Ø Keeps the country wise record of total quota available to the year to the CTM.
Ø Updating the record that how much quota is used and how much is remaining.
Ø If there is excess of quota for the year then they sell it to the other exporters.
Ø If there is need for more quotas then they purchase from different exporters and associations like APTMA.
This is the major department of the company. Finance department is located with the factory. It prepares different kinds of financial reports and gives information to management for decision-making purposes.
Finance department prepares the Income statements, Balance sheet, Trail balance, Cash flows, Production report for the whole month, stock taking report yield comparison report etc. these all reports are helpful for the management to make production plan, financing decisions and other important matters. The head of the department in finance manager. He is a chartered accountant.
Function of finance department
Following are the main functions of finance department
1. To prepare monthly and half-yearly reports
2. To keep the record of inventory and stock
3. To maintain a liquid position
4. To maintain adequate cash to run the operations of business
5. To reconcile the bank statements
6. To make payments to the suppliers
7. To maintain debt and credit balances of the customers
8. To deal with the sales tax and income tax departments
9. Preparations of vouchers
10. Prepare profit and loss accounts & income statements
11. Keep record for the payment of salaries
Components of finance department
Finance department consists of the following sections:
ü Payable, Contractors, Misc.
ü Bank negotiation & reconciliation
ü Right share
ü Store costing
ü Sales account costing
Payables, contractors, misc.
In this section usually payables are paid to the suppliers of all goods including stationary, maintenance goods, cement etc. payable is made according to the contract and according to the instructions of the CEO. Bill of the supplier, inspection & receipt note, store purchase. Journal voucher is received after inspection by store dept to this section and then bill is paid according to the due date.
Bank negotiation & reconciliation
This department starts working when documents reach back to Faisalabad office. Documents are recorded in document receipt register and in bank register.
Payments are received by two methods:
L/C = Sight, CDA, 120 days, 90 days
Contract = Bill of exchange
If payment is required as according to L/C or contract without factoring then bank charges the service charges and make payments on the due date. If post shipment payment is required then bank works as a factor and makes payments after deduction of mark-up.
A report is given to the G.M finance, on daily basis about the customer and payment date. He makes decision either to grant discount to him or not.
Right share are issued when there is a need of long-term financing. The directors in the Board of directors meetings issue right shares. These are announced in the newspapers, stock exchange and letters are issued to authorized banks for collection of money. Foreign investors are called Non-Resident and special letters are issued to non-resident shares holders to inform about right share issuance. State Bank of Pakistan approves the issuance of right shares to the non- residents.
Dividend is decided in the board of directors meeting and percentage is decided on each share. Crescent Textile Mills posts dividends warrants to share holders at their home addresses. In reply, shareholders apply for dividends. Checks are issued to the shareholders after checking their records in register.
Inspection receipt note, the store costing section receives bill of the related. There are checked against purchased order and Performa invoice in terms of quantity, specification, price etc. After this, a bank payment voucher is prepared and sent to payable section, which issue the checks to the related party and posted in the ledger.
For import when advice from bank is received the work of store costing starts. It is recorded in L/C ledger with all expenses and the arrival of Bill of Lading. It is also recorded in ledger and payment is made to the exporter through bank.
Excise section deals with the outgoing products for issuance of Gate pass. The working of excise section starts after sale; when a loading program is received from export sale & local sale processing. According to that program, gate pass are prepared and issued to the god own keeper. After issuing Gate pass, its details are recorded in the register and then sale invoices are prepared in which actual value and sales tax value is mentioned.
The internal audit section performs three types of audit:
3. Physical verification
Pre audit deals with the local purchase, TA/DA, utility bills, while post audit deals with L/C, cotton purchase, dry port, civil works etc.
The working of audit section starts from the receptions of voucher/checks, L/C; ledger after this pre/post audit is started. At the completion of audit it is installed and stamped and returned to finance and account department.
Store purchase Journal voucher
It is a voucher, which is used to record the store purchases.
Bank payment voucher
It is the voucher, which is used to record the payments, which are made through the bank.
The bank uses thin voucher to record the amount from the credit advice, which is issued.
It is issued to record the entry in the books of account.
Sales journal voucher
It is used to record the sales & sales tax.
Cash payment voucher
It is used to pay the amount in cash
Head office cash receipt
This receipt is used to record the proceeds of sales
When cash or check are deposited for credit to Crescent Textile Mill’s account, the bank issue a credit advice and that is attached with the voucher.
The department is located within the factory. There are eight employees working in the purchase department.
The decision of the purchase of raw material is med by the top management or when any new machinery or plant is to be acquired. At the time of the cultivation of the cotton crop, the decision is made with considering the other factors like requirement, price, quality etc that how much we should purchase and from whom we should purchase and through what sources we can finance this purchase. So in this regard, the Chairman with the consultation of the Mill Manager, General Manager Finance and Technical Manager make the bulk orders.
The finance division helps them in this regard to arrange eh funds. So in this regard, the select the bank that provide financing facility at lower rate of interest.
As far as the purchase of raw material is concerned, the purchased department fully contributed its efforts in this regard. Whenever any section of the mills or he head office requires any thing they make and purchase indent to the purchase department. At mill, the storekeeper made this indent, on the other hand of the required thing is available with him, he makes the delivery to that section.
When the supplier dispatches the goods to the mill, a dispatch advice is made by the department t other store keeper that the items is dispatched to you. At mill, an inward gate pass is made and the items sent to the store where the storekeeper prepares goods receipt note after inspecting the items and this GRN one copy is sent to the purchase office and one copy is sent to the account s office.
Function of purchase department
Following are functions of purchase department:
o Provide link between the workers and management
o Ensure the implementation of the rule and regulations of the company
o Inquires of the complaints against the workers
o To solve the problems and grievances of the workers.
The store plays very important role in any kind of manufacturing organization. Here we are discussing the objectives and functions of the store in any manufacturing organization.
Following are the main objectives of any store in the manufacturing organization.
o Planning for arranging the demand
o Provide different demanded items to the different departments
o Communication with the top management
Following are the main functions of the store keeper has performed in any kind of organization:
o Collection of demand from different departments and issue material to them
o If stock is not available with it, demand sends to purchase office
o Collection of receipt of material or items purchased
o Keep the stock of items up dated
o Keep the items in the store in systematic manner
o Link with purchase office in the valuation of the items purchased
At Crescent Textile Mills there is the main store at the mill premises, which is situated away from the production and accounts offices. There are seven men in the store, which deal with the demand of the different people at the mill.
At the mill premises there is a time office, which performs following functions:
v Prepare the monthly wages of the workers on the basis of the basic and over time worked
v Prepare the final settlement sheet of the worker
v Maintain the time register for the workers
v Maintain the record of the workers
At Crescent Textile Mills, there are 12 to 15 men working in time office.
At mill premises there is a cashier, which holds the patty cash for the day to expenditures of the factory and give wages to the workers.
At factory there is a strict security staff at the main gate which checks each and every thing coming or going from the factory premises.
There is a separate personal department, which performs personal functions in factory.
Recruitment and selection
The personal department helps the upper level management in selecting employees. Vacancies are filled on the basis o experience, competency and capacity.
Sources of recruitment
If some vacancies are vacant and some junior person fulfills the condition then he is promoted to that seat.
There are following methods of external sources:
Some jobs are fulfilled through the reference of the employees already working in the Crescent Textile Mills.
Some times vacancies are filled by choosing among the persons who have send the applications for the job.
If there is any vacancy, an add is placed in the newspaper for that job.
Office working hours
8.30 A.M TO 1 PM
1 PM TO 2.30 Lunch Break
2.30 PM TO 5 PM
7 AM TO 12 PM
12 PM TO 12.30 PM Lunch Break
12.30 PM TO 4 PM
The employee is retired at the age of 58
Training and development
Training is mean through which a man learns how to do work and how one can increase one’s efficiency. In Crescent Textile Mills training opportunities are available.
There is job rotation system in Crescent Textile Mills. In this way employees are able to learn more about the system and procedure of the organization
Health and safety
Health facilities are available in Crescent Textile Mills for the employee whose salary is below RS.3000
However following health and safety measures are taken in at the factory
v Fire extinguishers have been hanged on the walls to be more prominent.
v Incase of industrial injury, first aid is provided to the injured at the spot.
v The cotton is stocked in godown to prevent from fire moisture etc.
v No much woodwork has been carried inside the factory building
Benefits and facilities
All employees enjoy medical facilities
Workers participation fund
All the permanent employees are entitled to become a member. The company contributes every year some amount of profit for permanent employees.
32 leaves per annum are allowed under different categories like sick leave, causal leaves etc.
The top management is provided with fully maintained cars. Conveyance allowance is provided to employees.
T.A is paid to the employees if they travel for the purpose of the business
Crescent Textile Mills has set up its own housing colony where the residences are provided to employees.
Crescent Textile Mills is using imported machinery
ü It has a strong market image
ü The customer is aware of the name of the company
ü It has high financial resources
ü It has competent staff working for the progress of the company
ü It has automated system of production
ü Organization has friendly environment
ü It has certificate of ISO 9002
ü It has a wide range of products
ü It always sets new standards for quality
ü Its design studio is equipped with latest technology.
ü It has given a large quota for exports in USA and Europe
ü Crescent Textile Mills has ignored than local market
ü Transit time for international market is comparatively long as compared to India and China.
ü There is lack of proper training programs especially for workers. They learn through experience and from seniors that’s the reason o f high rate of wastage during production.
ü Wastage is very high especially in spinning sector
ü Crescent Textile Mills has no proper sale system for cotton waste and yarn waste.
ü Some time delivery lates due to lack of production planning
ü Middle level management is de motivated due to low salary package and promotions are held after a long period
ü There is no job commitment among the employees.
ü There is no proper criteria for performance appraisal that’s why staff in not motivated
ü No measures has been taken to motivate the employees
ü As Crescent Textile Mills is ISO-9002 certified company so it has a chance to increase & expand business all over the world.
ü The demand of its products is high in international market
ü Govt is providing rebate facility
ü Long term loans are easily available
ü Company can expand its operations easily
ü Anti dumping duties in European market are overdrawn, so the chance is to increase the export as compared to last years.
ü Devaluation of rupee made Pakistani export more acceptable to the foreign buyers. There is a chance to compete better now.
ü Govt’s pre import-export policy for cotton is also in favor of Crescent Textile Mills.
ü Foreign investment in textile sector in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and India is a danger in future for Crescent Textile Mills
ü It has been seen that many other groups in Pakistan have entered in competition with Crescent Textile Mills. If they will not be competed well, there is a chance that they can get share of export from foreign buyers.
ü South Africa is thinking about to impose the anti-dumping duties on Pakistan textile exports. If it is imposed, a reasonable export share and big market may be lost.
ü There is no proper attention towards Russian market. Crescent Textile Mills can get big orders from Russia. If attention will not be given towards this side there is a chance that any other competitor can introduce its products in Russia and this market can be lost.
ü High inflation rates hinder in competing the Indian yarn at international level.
ü Fluctuating prices of dollar also affect the purchase of cotton in off-season.
ü Due to economic crises of eastern countries, so many sales lost during last few years, but now these countries are again on the road of progress. If the previous customers are not properly attended, they may be last forever.
ü Due to military Govt in Pakistan, there is a chance for Pakistan to be declared as a terror country. So this thing is also a threat for Crescent Textile Mills.
The business environment of Crescent Textile Mills is facing tough competition.
Its major competitors are also inside the country as well as in the foreign markets. While concerning with the countrywide competitors, there are major competitors like Nishat Textile Mills and there are also other major competitors in the European markets.
The market for textile product is becoming more competitive every year. The customer is emphasizing on quality over all other things and can easily search the most cost effective supplier anywhere in the world. Keeping this in view, Crescent Textile Mills focus has been on meeting its customer’s demands and requirements, improving its competitiveness, increasing productivity and enhancing its existing quality control systems.
Following are some findings of our report:
Ø There are no motivating factors for the employees
Ø Companies personal policies are not good
Ø The performance appraisal are not carried regularly
Ø Company is facing the main problem of textile industry crises in the country due to floods, leaf curl virus etc.
Ø The company is unable to use its full plant capacity, which shows that technical staff is not up to the standards
Ø The employees are not much aware of latest available computer programs
Ø The management is not doing anything for the purpose of satisfying and motivating their employees and the workers, which may lead towards the more productivity.
Ø Changing Govt policies are providing problems for the company exports policies.
Ø The short-term solvency and long term solvency of the company is better and still acceptable, because there is still a margin of getting long-term loan.
Ø The net profit margin in increasing since 1995 but it decreased in 1999.
Following are some suggestions
Ø A proper training should be given to the employees and the workers to enhance their skills to increase their productivity and ultimately of the company.
Ø The management should make the market survey time to time to get more and latest information about the market factors like the price, demand, current consumer trends etc.
Ø As the world has become a global village, the management should have the latest knowledge and information’s about the world because now a little change in any corner of the world can affect your business.
Ø The top management should give the autonomy and the flexibility to every manage to make decisions according to the situation at any time and in the absence of the top managers.
Ø All the duties and responsibilities of the employees and the workers should be clearly defined.
Ø The computer technology should also be used in decision making as well as in storing and feeding the data.
Ø The company should make it possible to deliver the goods to the buyers at the agreed time.
Ø The company should adopt an efficient appraisal system and give rewards to the employees who have done well.
Ø The management should recruit right persons for the right job.
Ø The management should be able to assess the problems before it’s occurring so that they are able to find the ways of their solution.
Ø The management should hire multi-skilled workers to get economy of scale.
Ø The company should emphasize on its personnel department immediately on emergency basis.
Ø Long-term solvency is good but time interest ratio should also be improved.
Ø There should be decentralization in decision-making
Ø An effective relationship and coordination between the departments must be there.
Ø It should be realized to be very clear about the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy to take effective decision about its continuity to make an effective strategic implementation.
Ø Crescent Textile Mills should also introduce its brands in local markets.
Ø Company should give proper attention to deal with dead fabric and made ups.
We got a lot of experience from Crescent Textile Mills. During our internship we came to know that how the different activities take place, what are the procedures
The Crescent Textile Mills is on the way of progress. It has been earning profit for the last five years. The management is professionally qualified and experienced.
The Crescent Textile Mills should motivate their employees by providing different incentives. Their salary package is also not attractive. The performance of the Human Resource department is also not satisfactory.
Crescent Textile Mill’s product (yarn & cloth) is of high quality. The demand of Crescent Textile Mill’s products is increasing with the passage of time. The company should expand its capacity as soon as possible to satisfy the demands of their customers.